Select the first letter of the word from the list above to jump to appropriate section of the glossary.
In HTML, an anchor is a tagged text or graphic image that acts as a link between two places in the same page or two different files. It can be the start of the hyperlink going to another location or the destination of a link.
Adobe Systems' software suite for creating a portable electronic document (PDF) that will look the same on any platform. Acrobat Reader is a read-only utility that can be downloaded free.
AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format, .aif)
A sound format that is compatible with all Mac and some Windows applications.
Animated GIFs are part of the GIF89a specification allowing multiple still frames to be stored in the same file and shown in a certain sequence, duration, and location. These GIFs can be created by programs such as GIFBuilder. For more information go to http://webreference.com/dev/gifanim.html/
Intermixing pixels of the adjoining colors along the jagged edge in a graphic image that creates the illusion of smoothing the edges of the image.
AU (µ-law Sun Audio File .au)
This sound file format, generated by Unix systems, used to be the only one found on the web. It is much less used now and is considered lower quality than the other formats described above.
The first character or set of characters within a tag in HTML that specifies the tag's purpose. It is also a part of a hierarchical structure such as a Web page or Web site. In a graphic, it is any particular manipulable shape or object.
A command placed directly in a program that refers to an HTML tag used to link objects and elements that require plug-ins for viewing.
EPS (Encapsulated PostScript, .eps) / vector graphic
A standard file format for importing and exporting PostScript language files among applications. A graphic composed of lines and curves defined by mathematical objects called vectors which describe graphics according to their geometric characteristics. Vector graphics are resolution independent - not defined by a fixed number of pixels and so are automatically scaled to appear crisp and sharp on any monitor or output device at any resolution.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
A list of of frequently asked questions and answers about the Internet and Web sites that users may use as a reference for basic information.
File name extension
File extensions are used to label files as to their type or program origin and possible use. In DOS, this refers to the three-letter part of a filename after the period such as ".gif" for Graphic Interchange Format. For UNIX, Macintosh (file names don't require extensions), and other file systems, this refers to the string after the rightmost period in a filename. All files displayed by a browser must include an extension.
Some browser companies (Microsoft and Netscape) add specific tags or attributes not common to the current HTML markups which are only supported by their own browsers.
A collection of letters, punctuation marks, numbers, and other characters with a uniform, recognizable typeface, weight, and size that can be specified for any text and certain symbols.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol, sometimes ftp)
An Internet file transfer service that provides a way to copy files to and from FTP servers elsewhere on a network, different machines and operating systems, or the Internet that is based on the TCP/IP protocols.
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format, .gif)
Pronounced "JIFF." One kind of graphic image file format used to transform photographs and other art created on the computer into a compressed file that is easily transmitted and viewed over the Internet or to remote networks. It is one of the most accepted graphic file formats on the World Wide Web. The file itself is often referred to as a "GIF."
GIF87a is the original specification for this standard. GIF89a is a much enhanced specification that gives this format the capability to display any specific color as transparent and the capability to store and display multiple files as an animation.
A way of counting that uses 16 digits, 0-9 plus A-F, instead of the 10 digits that common decimal numbering uses. They are often used for recording values stored inside a computer.
Hexadecimal color codes
Numbered and lettered codes used to represent colors in HTML. The hexadecimal color coding system uses a base 16 reference; 256 values for Red, Green, and Blue are possible, using two digits for each.
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
Created in 1991 by a group of physicists in Switzerland to trade images and words referring to their scientific research it has been adopted by graphic designers to create hyperlinked documents readable over the Internet. Although HTML is not quite a programming language, it is the SGML-derived markup language used to "mark up" text documents so that they can be formatted properly and viewed on browsers.
All browsers support this basic language with slight variations in the interpretation of some of the markup tags.
http, HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
The Internet protocol or fixed set of messages and replies used to manage communication between World Wide Web clients (browsers) and servers.
Image Map or Clickable Image Map
A graphic image (GIF or JPEG file) that has "hotspots" or distinct clickable areas that are linked to different Web pages or locations within a Web page. The areas have sets of often invisible pixel coordinates (square, circular or polygon shaped) that contain hypertext link information to other URLs. Different sections of the map (graphic image) when clicked, take the user to different destinations.
A vector based draw program from Adobe Systems.
INI (Microsoft Windows Initialization File, .ini)
Contains the information which defines your windows environment. The Windows operating system and associated applications use the information stored in these files.
Interlacing, Interlaced Gif
A graphic image that begins loading as a "fuzzy" version and then gradually sharpens as it passes through stages of resolution. The reader does not have to wait until the entire graphic loads before moving on in the document.
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
A national or local company that sells access to the Internet such as America Online.
A programming language invented at Sun Computers that makes it possible for a server and a remote computer to share programs as well as data. Small Java applications, called "applets," are used on many Web pages to perform operations that can't normally be accomplished in HTML code.
JPG, JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group, .jpg)
JPEG is short for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, the association that originated this file format. JPEG is a compressible file format which stores full-color, continuous tone graphic images such as photographs for use on the Web. Files stored in this format usually have the extension .JPEG. The equivalent .JPG is used in DOS or Windows machines, which limit file extensions to three-characters. When a JPEG is created, a range of compression qualities may be considered. JPEG compression is a lossy process, which means that you sacrifice quality for file size the more you compress the image. For example, the highest quality images results in the largest file size. Whereas GIF images are limited to 256 colors (8-bit), JPEG images may contain millions of colors (24-bit) as well as additional information including PostScript clipping paths. JPEG is becoming a graphics format standard on the World Wide Web.
Link (Hyperlink) (hypertext link)
In HTML a link is a connection between two locations in the same file or two different documents on the Web. It's usually specified by an HTML tag or an anchor which has instructions to access a certain part of the page or another page entirely.
1,024 kilobytes, or 1,048,576 bytes.
Specific characters such as the angle brackets < >, the ampersand, the pound sign, and the semicolon, that signal the need for special handling when a text file is saved as an HTML document.
Microsoft Internet Explorer
One of the two most widely used graphical World Wide Web browsers. Download free from http://www.microsoft.com.
PDF (Portable Document Format, .pdf)
A file carrying all font and layout specifications to be used when a print document on the Web must be viewed in as close as possible appearance to its regularly printed paper original regardless of what platform is used to view it. Usually requires a viewer program such as Acrobat Reader which can be downloaded from http://www.adobe.com.
PFB (Type One PostScript Font Outlines, .pfb)
Contains the mathematical PostScript descriptions of the character outlines for a font. Originally developed by Adobe Systems, the Type One PostScript format prints cleaner and faster than the Type Three format. It is processed differently by their PostScript interpreter in laser printers, utilizing special mathematical algorithms built into the printer. PostScript hinting can be added to a Type One font to further increase its clarity when printed at lower resolution. Other benefits include smaller file sizes and compatibility with Adobe Type Manager. ATM allows rendering of smooth fonts on the screen, at any size and on any non-PostScript printer. Type One fonts will not print on some PostScript clone printers, and cannot contain any characters with grey fills or stroked paths. Files reside in the "PSFONTS" directory as referenced in the "WIN.INI" file under Windows.
PFM (Windows Font Metrics, ,pfm)
Contains character spacing, bounding box and kern pair information for PostScript fonts accessed by the Windows environment. These files reside in the "PSFONTS" directory and are referenced in the "WIN.INI" file when installed.
The leading pixel-based application from Adobe Systems designed to execute photo retouching, image editing and color painting. Especially useful for creating GIF and JPEG graphics for use in HTML documents created for the World Wide Web.
Pronounced "picks-L." It is short for the words picture element. A pixel on a screen is the equivalent of a dot (as in dots per inch) on a printed page and is the smallest element a computer monitor can display. Images created for the Web and spacing attributes in HTML tags are commonly measured in pixels.
A program or accessory used to extend the capabilities of an application program such as the RealAudio player.
QuickTime, created by Apple Computer, is the standard multimedia architecture used by software tool venders and the creators of content to store, edit, and play synchronized graphics, sound, video, text, and music. QuickTime delivers multimedia content from CD-ROM and the Internet. For more information go to http://www.quicktime.apple.com.
RAM (Random-Access Memory)
The computer memory used to store the results of ongoing work and to provide space for any operating system or application that is actually running at any given moment.
ROM (Read-Only Memory)
A computer memory that allows data to be stored once. After the data is recorded, the computer can only read the contents. ROM provides programs or instructions that remain constant.
Copyrighted software that can be freely shared with others as long as the restrictions specified by the author regarding distribution are followed. A fee to the author is often required for continued use. http://www.shareware.com
Macromedia Director files compressed with the program Afterburner for use on Web pages. Shockwave plug-ins are available for both Director 4.0 and 5.0 and for both Mac and PC. For more information go to http://www.macromedia.com.
In HTML, an element usually enclosed in angle brackets (< >), that contains information besides the actual document content, such as formatting information or links. There usually is a beginning tag and an ending tag . The word(s) between these tags take on the appearance specified by the particular tags used. For instance will make it bold type.
TCP / IP (Transfer Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)
A communications protocol developed under contract from the U.S. Department of Defense in the 1970's to connect different systems and different networks. These protocols and services are used to manage network communications and applications over the Internet.
A model to imitate or an empty layout of a Web page that a user may copy as the basis for a custom page. It already includes the HTML for various parts such as a header, or functions such as navigation, or forms such as a questionnaire.
A miniature graphical image that serves as a preview and link to a full-sized version.
Transparent Gif (tGIF)
A GIF image specially modified so that the normal rectangular or square frame around the object becomes "transparent" in a browser capable of handling such GIFs. The GIF's background color becomes the background color of the page it is placed on and appears to "float."
TTF (TrueType Font, .ttf)
TrueType, which was Developed by Apple Computer, is a competitive font format to the industry standard Type One format. There are several advantages to the TrueType format. Both character outline information and screen font information are included in the one file. Clean, sharp screen fonts and output on output devices are possible because the typeface rasterizer is built into Microsoft Windows and the current MacOS. TrueType fonts also have the ability to contain large character sets, well beyond the limitations of the 256 character barrier found in standard encoded PostScript typefaces.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
Pronounced as either "earl" or "U-R-L." The system for identifying any file on the Internet. The URL defines the protocols used to access a file - the name of the server the file is stored on or domain name and the path and name of the file on the server. A default file usually named index.html for Web servers, is accessed if there is no file name specified.
VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
A language that enables the creation of three-dimensional models and walk-through spaces which provide a more real-life experience. Using this language, graphics can be mapped to the surfaces of 3D models, and links can be attached to the surfaces. Those links can perform any of the functions of any Web hyperlink.
This sound format was developed by Microsoft and IBM, is native to the Windows platform, and therefore compatible with all Windows applications.
WMF (Windows Metafile, .wmf)
Windows metafile documents can contain any mix of vector and raster (or bitmapped) information to describe the contents of an image. WMF graphics are generally used on the Windows platform as a standard format for clip art and other graphically rich information such as charts.
WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get)
Pronounced "wizzy-wig." A term describing HTML authoring tools, text editors or other layout tools that attempt to show their users on-screen what the final documents will look like.